Mit Blackjack Team Inhaltsverzeichnis
Das MIT Blackjack Team war eine Gruppe von Studenten und ehemaligen Studenten des Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), die Strategien. Das MIT Blackjack Team war eine Gruppe von Studenten und ehemaligen Studenten des Massachusetts Institute of Technology, die Strategien entwickelten, um große Casinos bei dem Kartenspiel Black Jack unter der Verwendung ihrer Kartenzähltechniken. Das berühmte MIT-Blackjack Team, eine kleine Gruppe von Studenten des Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), gewann ab den. Die MIT Blackjack-Team Geschichte. Kartenspiele sind sehr populär unter Studenten, daher ist es nicht überraschend, dass das Team aus ambitionierten. Später wurde J.P. Massar von einem Blackjack Profispieler kontaktiert mit dem Vorschlag ein neues Blackjack Team zu bilden, das in den bestimmten Atlantic City.
Kaplan hatte schon erfolgreich Blackjack-Teams geführt und mit ihnen großen Erfolg in Las Vegas gehabt. Mit dem Aufkommen der Casinos in Atlantic City. Letzterer hatte bereits 3 Jahre erfolgreich Blackjack Teams in Las Vegas ausgebildet, die Lust am Spielen war ihm dabei jedoch vergangen. Er. Das MIT Blackjack Team war eine Gruppe von Studenten und ehemaligen Studenten des Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), die Strategien.
In fact, Jane and her boyfriend, who were both "math geeks," were recruited by Jeff Ma in the early s. Jeff knew them and had been friends with both of them.
Jane Willis and her boyfriend later married and divorced. In , she got remarried to Rich Davey. Their wedding was held in a Catholic church located behind the Tropicana and across from the Mandalay Bay casinos in Las Vegas.
The movie shows the characters talking on cell phones and playing blackjack at the Red Rock and Planet Hollywood casinos, which didn't open until and , respectively.
The 21 true story reveals that the real MIT Blackjack Team, on which the movie was based, played in the early s. It was started by Bill Kaplan part of the inspiration for Kevin Spacey's character , who founded the team on the same business principles and practices that he had employed in starting and running a Vegas based team for the previous three years.
One of the players we trained in late and was John Chang. In addition to presenting a variety of strategies for success at blackjack, it also includes Thorp's "Basic Strategy" chart.
Learn how to use the chart to make decisions when playing blackjack. The movie falsely makes the team out to be an MIT only club.
In reality, there were members from other schools, including Harvard and Princeton. In the movie, we're expected to believe that Micky Rosa Kevin Spacey provided the startup money for the team.
In real life, the team leaders J. Creating a company allowed the team to recruit its players and raise venture capital as a legal entity. The money came from past players and the team leaders, including Bill Kaplan, who says that he also received investment capital from his former college roommate, a number of his Havard Business School sectionmates, and other friends and family.
The company is further explored in the History Channel documentary Breaking Vegas , which also examines the rigorous "checkouts" that the players had to endure.
Masser "Mr. M" in the documentary required that players be able to play through 10 shoes, while only making a limited number of counting mistakes.
Strategic Investments LP disbanded on December 31, as the result of banned players, long losing streaks, and a lack of time due to more profitable business opportunities in the real estate market Bill Kaplan.
Shortly after SI was terminated, one of its former players, Semyon Dukach, created his own team, which employed 60 players in 5 cities. Semyon's team operated under the guise Amphibian Investments.
The movie 21 and Ben Mezrich's book, Bringing Down the House , were both based on a smaller team that was an offshoot of Amphibian Investments.
The movie shows Ben using flash cards to practice the various code words, which were used to represent the count.
The Spotter conveys the count to the Big Player by casually using the code word in a sentence. However, after this point, the odds are in your favor.
It is okay to bet semi-recklessly. Thorp's book was the team's blackjack Bible. The book's "Basic Strategy" chart reveals a set of mathematically correct decisions to employ when playing blackjack view the "Basic Strategy" chart.
Mike Aponte, who the Fisher character is based on, addressed this question by saying, "There are some parts in the book where I just scratch my head because obviously Ben Mezrich, the author, took artistic liberties.
Martinez, [Jeff Ma] and I had a friend who was king of the Asian nightclub scene. On Chinese New Year, he invited us to a private party in Chinatown.
When we arrived, we saw they had a few blackjack tables set up. It wasn't much, but they were playing for real money. Despite various voices on the internet coming out against the movie's mostly white, non-Asian cast some Facebook users have even called for a boycott of the film , the real MIT Blackjack Team's former members were not offended.
Mike Aponte, the basis for the Fisher character, says that they did carry most of the money on their persons when going through airport security.
This is because cash was easily recognized by security through the x-ray machine. If they had a lot of chips, they stored them in carry-on bags.
Mike says that security usually didn't realize the number of chips that were actually there BlackJackInfo.
Ben Mezrich's book Bringing Down the House describes much more elaborate techniques that the players used to smuggle money.
The methods include using fake umbrellas, laptop computers, plaster casts and hollow crutches. The author even quotes the book's main character, Kevin Lewis, whose real life counterpart is Jeff Ma.
But Ma said that he never described such techniques to Mezrich, or knew of anyone using them. Jeff Ma said that the first time that he had heard of such cloak-and-dagger tactics was when he read Mezrich's book.
In an interview with Quint from Ain't It Cool News , Jeff Ma, the real life individual on whom the movie's main character is based, said the following, "I realized it's not really a movie about me.
It's not like an autobiographical documentary about my life. It's a cool movie about stuff that we did and a lot of the stuff that we did is very on point and true in the movie, but the storyline has changed quite a bit.
I think what it does do well though is it captures the excitement of what we pulled off during our playing days.
Mezrich's book has faced scrutiny. Ben Mezrich began his literary career writing techno-thriller fiction.
Students Who Took Vegas for Millions , on which the movie 21 is based, has faced scrutiny for its embellishment and massaging of the facts that make up the MIT Blackjack Team's true story.
Mezrich attempted to defend such accusations by saying, "Every word on the page isn't supposed to be fact-checkable. In the movie, Ben's weekends as a high roller nearly cause him to lose his two closest friends, who no longer want him to participate with them in a robotics competition.
Former MIT team leader John Chang responded to this scene in his blog by saying, "Starting from the part where Ben loses control at the Red Rock and loses K, the movie takes off on a tangent that has no resemblance to reality.
Our players were far too disciplined to even think of doing something like that. As I see it, that entire scene is a plot device to end the movie - create a conflict between Campbell and Rosa that leads up to the switcheroo finale.
In the movie, Cole Williams Laurence Fishburne is a casino security expert who investigates the team. Fishburne's character was not specifically based on any single real life individual.
The 21 movie's true story reveals that the real MIT Blackjack Team was investigated by Griffin Investigations , a security agency that had been used by casinos worldwide.
Andy Anderson, a tall silver-haired man who worked for Griffin, followed the team for four to five years and played a major role in exposing their strategy Breaking Vegas.
As a result, several of the MIT team members were black-booked by Griffin. Their faces landed in the Griffin Book, a dossier of photos distributed to casinos around the world Breaking Vegas.
These players are usually allowed on the casino floor, but are forbidden to go near the blackjack tables. Similarly, in Ben Mezrich's book Breaking Vegas , we find the Fisher character beaten bloody in the bathroom of a Bahamian casino.
Mike Aponte, the real life Fisher, says that he was never beaten up in a casino anywhere The Boston Globe. John Chang, part of the inspiration for Kevin Spacey's character, said, "You might wonder, are the books true?
Put yourself in [book writer] Mezrich's place. He wants to sell books. If he makes up a few lurid details, well, who's going to object?
So, let's beat up one of the players. In fact, let's make him swallow a chip. In the book, Micky is the one who comes up with the idea.
In reality, it never happened at all. Who in their right mind would do that? John Chang says players did not party in the middle of a trip. No, at least not like we see in the movie, where characters use such vices to celebrate a big night.
The group went their separate ways when most of them graduated in May of that year. Most never gambled again, but some of them maintained an avid interest in card counting and remained in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In late November , a professional blackjack player contacted one of the card-counting students, J. Massar, after seeing a notice for the blackjack course.
He proposed forming a new group to go to Atlantic City to take advantage of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission 's recent ruling that made it illegal for the Atlantic City casinos to ban card counters.
Casinos instead have to take other countermeasures like shuffling the cards earlier than normal, using more decks of cards, or offering games with worse rules to destroy the advantage gained by counting--even though these all negatively impact the non-counter as well.
They recruited more MIT students as players at the January blackjack class. They played intermittently through May and increased their capital four-fold, but were nonetheless more like a loose group sharing capital than a team with consistent strategies and quality control.
In May , J. Massar, known as "Mr. M" in the History Channel documentary , overheard a conversation about professional blackjack at a Chinese restaurant in Cambridge.
He introduced himself to the speaker, Bill Kaplan, a Harvard MBA graduate who had run a successful blackjack team in Las Vegas three years earlier.
Kaplan had earned his BA at Harvard in and delayed his admission to Harvard Business School for a year, when he moved to Las Vegas and formed a team of blackjack players using his own research and statistical analysis of the game.
Using funds he received on graduation as Harvard's outstanding scholar-athlete, Kaplan generated more than a 35 fold rate of return in fewer than nine months of play.
Kaplan continued to run his Las Vegas blackjack team as a sideline while attending Harvard Business School but, by the time of his graduation in May , the players were so "burnt out" in Nevada they were forced to hit the international circuit.
Not feeling he could continue to manage the team successfully while they traveled throughout Europe and elsewhere, encountering different rules, playing conditions, and casino practices, Kaplan parted ways with his teammates, who then splintered into multiple small playing teams in pursuit of more favorable conditions throughout the world.
After meeting Kaplan and hearing about his blackjack successes, Massar asked Kaplan if he was interested in going with a few of Massar's blackjack-playing friends to Atlantic City to observe their play.
Given the fortuitous timing Kaplan's parting with his Las Vegas team , he agreed to go in the hopes of putting together a new local team that he could train and manage.
Kaplan observed Massar and his teammates playing for a weekend in Atlantic City. He noted that each of the players used a different, and overcomplicated, card counting strategy.
This resulted in error rates that undermined the benefits of the more complicated strategies. Upon returning to Cambridge, Kaplan detailed the problems he observed to Massar.
Kaplan said he would back a team but it had to be run as a business with formal management procedures, a required counting and betting system, strict training and player approval processes, and careful tracking of all casino play.
A couple of the players were initially averse to the idea. They had no interest in having to learn a new playing system, being put through "trial by fire" checkout procedures before being approved to play, being supervised in the casinos, or having to fill out detailed player sheets such as casino, cash in and cash out totals, time period, betting strategy and limits, and the rest for every playing session.
However, their keen interest in the game coupled with Kaplan's successful track record won out. Ten players, including Kaplan, Massar, Jonathan, Goose, and 'Big Dave' aka 'coach', to distinguish from the Dave in the first round played on this bank.
Ten weeks later they more than doubled the original stake. Per the terms of the investment offering, players and investors split the profits with players paid in proportion to their playing hours and computer simulated win rates.
The team often recruited students through flyers and the players' friends from college campuses across the country.
The team tested potential members to find out if they were suitable candidates and, if they were, the team thoroughly trained the new members for free.
Fully trained players had to pass an intense "trial by fire," consisting of playing through 8 six-deck shoes with almost perfect play, and then undergo further training, supervision, and similar check-outs in actual casino play until they could become full stakes players.
The group combined individual play with a team approach of counters and big players to maximize opportunities and disguise the betting patterns that card counting produces.
In a interview in Blackjack Forum magazine,  John Chang, an MIT undergrad who joined the team in late and became MIT team co-manager in the mids and s , reported that, in addition to classic card counting and blackjack team techniques, at various times the group used advanced shuffle and ace tracking techniques.
While the MIT team's card counting techniques can give players an overall edge of about 2 percent, some of the MIT team's methods have been established as gaining players an overall edge of about 4 percent.
The MIT Team's approach was originally developed by Al Francesco, elected by professional gamblers as one of the original seven inductees into the Blackjack Hall of Fame.
Blackjack team play was first written about by Ken Uston , an early member of Al Francesco's teams. Uston's book on blackjack team play, Million Dollar Blackjack , was published shortly before the founding of the first MIT team.
Kaplan enhanced Francesco's team methods and used them for the MIT team. The team concept enabled players and investors to leverage both their time and money, reducing their "risk of ruin" while also making it more difficult for casinos to detect card counting at their tables.
Having played and run successful teams since , Kaplan reached a point in late where he could not show his face in any casino without being followed by the casino personnel in search of his team members.
As a consequence he decided to fall back on his growing real estate investment and development company, his "day job" since , and stopped managing the team.
He continued for another year or so as an occasional player and investor in the team, now being run by Massar, Chang and Bill Rubin, a player who joined the team in At least 70 people played on the team in some capacity either as counters, Big Players, or in various supporting roles over that time span.
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One of the players we trained in late and was John Chang. Massar and Chang were the core members of the team. Massar was an MIT graduate who led the team in its early stages.
John Chang was also a leader and member of the original blackjack team. Chang graduated from MIT in with an engineering degree. These three mean formed the basis of the team, but as time went on more members were added.
While a few of these members came from MIT, all of them did not. The team included members from Harvard and Princeton as well.
As time went on, Kaplan and his team introduced more members. When 21 hit the movie theaters it immediately unleashed a firestorm of controversy among those who knew the real story of the MIT blackjack team.
In the movie, the principal members of the team are Caucasians. The truth, however, is that the most successful members of the MIT blackjack team were Asians.
Two of them became the major stars of the team. Jeff Ma was the real-life Ben Campbell. Jeff Ma came from a very affluent family.
Ma had a desire to attend Harvard Medical School, like his character in the film, but that dream was soon derailed when Ma realized he could make far more money counting cards at blackjack.
Ma was well-versed in the theories developed by Thorp and his brain assimilated card counting with the speed and proficiency of a super computer.
In fact, Ma even has a small role in the film. After his blackjack playing days were over, Jeff Ma founded the sports stock market website Protrade.
Jeff Ma no longer plays blackjack for a living but his interest in gambling remains strong. Mike Aponte was recreated in the movie 21 as the obnoxious and cocky character named Jimmy Fisher.
In reality, Aponte was nothing like the Fisher character. In one regard the film is somewhat accurate. The two students had been friends for a long time and Aponte was the one who taught Jeff Ma how to play blackjack and count cards.
There was no rivalry between them at all. Both Aponte and Ma were both concerned with making a lot of money playing blackjack, and they succeeded. As a youngster, Mike Aponte never had a desire to play cards.
Mike was the valedictorian of his high school class despite having attended 11 different schools. When Aponte arrived at MIT to study economics he was soon approached by a fellow student who told him that some other students were participating in a blackjack team that was using card counting to make a lot of money.
Aponte says he was hooked on blackjack from the first moment he met the MIT blackjack team. The Big Player was the team member who displayed the greatest self-control at the blackjack table, not necessarily the best card counting abilities.
Other players would signal Aponte when a table was hot, and he would then sit and assume the counting and betting responsibilities.
Mike Aponte was so good at his job that he eventually became a manager of the blackjack team at MIT. Aponte was responsible for recruiting and training new members.
He continued to lead the team right up until and helped the MIT group to make millions of dollars in profit. He also won the first ever World Series of Blackjack tournament in , proving that his blackjack card counting skills were still as sharp as ever.
Today, Aponte teaches others how to count cards and beat the game of blackjack through an instructional website. The actual workings of the MIT blackjack team have long been held in confidence by those who participated in the project, for obvious reasons.
Some of the members of the team still play blackjack today. It would not serve them well if all of their methods were revealed.
There is enough information, however, to fully describe the basic methods of the team. The MIT blackjack team was led by a team manager.
Mike Aponte functioned for a short time in a dual role as the team manager and Big Player. The team manager was not typically someone who participated in actual play.
As a rule, managers of the MIT blackjack team were the ones responsible for organizing the playing sessions and making sure the players could get their large bankroll transported from place to place.
It was often necessary for the players on the team to conceal large amounts of money on their bodies to avoid scrutiny by airport security officials.
Had the money been discovered, many questions would have been asked. Most of these questions would have come from the Internal Revenue Service who would have wanted to know how college students could have so much money that was unaccounted for on their taxes.
The team would be strategically placed in various casinos by the team manager who oversaw the entire operation. If there was ever a problem with a member of the team, the team manager was the one to deal with it.
The second member of the team was the signaler, or prop. The job of the signaler was to locate blackjack tables which were hot.
The signaler would sit down to play like any other blackjack player and bet only the table minimum. As they played these players would track the true count of the blackjack table.
As soon as the count became very favorable, the signaler would then alert another member of the team by means of a gesture. In the movie, the signaler crossed their hands behind their back.
It is unlikely that such a signal was ever used by the MIT team because it was too basic and too easy to spot. In the movie 21, Willis was portrayed by actress Kate Bosworth.
MIT Team members were responsible for covering their own travel costs and meals. The investors merely fronted the bankroll money needed to play.
Now, the only matter left involves figuring out how much the team made in its lifetime. This is no doubt a tremendous amount.
Of course, it was split between investors and players with dozens on each side. This blackjack squad might still be going today if casinos let them.
However, gambling establishments hate losing serious money to card counters. Griffin Investigations, a private investigator, matched yearbook photos of MIT and Harvard students to identify much of the team.
Griffin realized that many of the previously caught players lived around Cambridge. They were able to piece together the rest from here. Individuals also quit playing off and on.
They were perfectly fine walking away from the casino world when a potentially lucrative career awaited them. Heat from casinos also caused a great deal of stress for many players.
Nobody likes having unpleasant conversations with the pit boss and, much worse, worrying about security. Only a few team members would know the exact numbers on players, days played per week, winnings, etc.
However, I believe that my variables and ending figure could be somewhere in the ballpark of how much the MIT Team earned playing real money blackjack.
You may have your own thoughts on the matter, especially with the longevity and what counts as actual team play. Whatever the case may be, though, this blackjack team accomplished something that no other squad has or will in the gambling world.
They successfully crushed casinos for nearly two decades and earned millions in the process. Skip to content Search for: Search Close menu.
He later met blackjack player J. Massar at a local Chinese restaurant. Some team divisions played as far away as Europe or the Caribbean.
Strategic Investments was very successful until the end of , when most of the team was identified and banned from casinos. Next Entry Bad at Gambling?Mit ihrer genialen Teamstrategie und ihren besonderen mathematischen Fähigkeiten haben sie jahrelang unbemerkt die Casinos um Millionenbeträge erleichtert. Sachsenlotto App Casinos selbst hatten doch inzwischen dazugelernt, vergaben mehr Spielverbote und so wurde es immer schwerer nach neuen Spielern zu werben. Aus dem Casino geworfen zu werden war eine Beste Spielothek in SchroГџlach finden, aber aus dem MIT ausgeschlossen zu werden, war Beste Spielothek in Lunau finden. Passwort vergessen? Mittwochsziehung kam immer dann zum Einsatz, wenn der Zählimpuls sehr hoch und die Einsätze hoch waren. Ihr müsst nicht unbedingt Kartenzählen, um auch zu gewinnen. Am Anfang war Print Online Bad DГјrkheim glamourösen Las vegas Leben noch nicht viel zu spüren und die Gruppe musste erst mal auf die Suche nach Investoren gehen. Massar bat Kaplan ihn nach Atlantic City zu begleiten, um sein Geld Verdienen Mit Apps Programmieren zu beobachten und dessen Fehler aufzuzeigen. Sie wollen verkleidet Unitymedia Partner einmal in das Casino von Las Vegas und die Bank total sprengen.